Before knowing who invented Homework, let us dwell on the history of how Homework came into existence and what was the logic of this practice.
History of Homework
Homework tasks or assignments are a set of work assigned to learners by their tutors/teachers to be completed outside the lecture room.
A typical homework assignment may include writing, mathematical questions, reading, or even preparing a presentation on various topics.
The information of these tasks is constantly reviewed before an exam or any other skills to be learned or practiced. The effects of these assignments are debated.
Generally speaking, these tasks do not improve one’s academic performance, and that is because students tend to research online and copy the complete information to meet the requirement.
However, some research holds that Homework may improve some academic skills in older students, especially those with lower-achieving in an average class.
However, these assignments stress parents and students and reduce learners’ time in other activities.
Who invented Homework and when?
The whole assigning students tasks so they can complete them at home can be traced back to early ancient Rome.
In 200 AD, a scholar named Pliny the Younger, an oratory tutor, is believed to have invented homework assignments by asking his students to practice public speaking in their homes.
According to him, this was to help them become more conversant and confident in their public speeches.
However, some scholars might argue that Homework was not precisely the written work that learners must do at home. Only introverted students who fear speaking in public find it stressful and difficult.
It is also safe and competent to argue that Homework is a fundamental part of formal education.
It is also probable that it has existed since the beginning of learning, just like a beacon of light to all those lost and helpless or to cast the light on that student who despises the whole concept.
This means that ancient Romans, Enlightenment philosophers, and some middle-aged folks all memorized, sang, and read pieces well before Homework was introduced and given its definition.
It is more brutal and more confusing to play the blame card unless you have a hint that can point some trajectories towards Horace Mann.
Why is Homework given?
In the old setting of ancient Rome, Homework was given to people to practice speaking skills to gain confidence when talking in public.
In modern education, reading helps lecturers to evaluate and determine how well the course outline is being taken and understood by learners.
Some scholars believe that homework help learners develop some problem-solving skills and allow students to review and understand all the class material.
Types of Homework
Homework can be categorized into three broad categories:
Each aims to assess the student’s problem-solving skills; For instance, Preparation is used to give students enough time to deal with various problems.
Practice aim at giving the student some alone time with the puzzle so they can come up with their answers.
Lastly, the extension allows students to look for more information about the course; by doing so, they learn more about the system.
Benefits of giving Homework
Like any other project, Homework has a lot of benefits for both the teacher and the students, and if the assignment is done at home, some parents also get the chance to assess what is going on in school. Here are some benefits of Homework;
Help Students research more
Most course outlines are customized to fit specific goals. Since teaching time is limited to one lesson a day, assigning students some homework helps them find extra information left out during classwork.
Allows Teachers to assess progress
A teacher can evaluate if the students understand the concepts through tests and assignments, and the best way is through terms before the test.
Assigning students tasks allows them to work alone and respond according to what they think is right, and by doing that, a teacher can know where to stress more and which part they should take more time.
Criticism of Homework
The whole homework thing has not gone through without some critics. People have different ideologies about students being given tasks to work on at home.
Scholars believe that there is extra work on students and link them with the cause of stress to students, which leads to higher school dropouts.
Some philosophers think it’s a way lazy teachers use to avoid teaching students by giving a section of the course outline to the student to find answers for themselves.
History of Homework in the United States
The past was when Americans did not look at Homework as part of American culture, with a small number of students able to take on education at a higher level. Many teens and children devoted significant hours to household chores and farming. Homework was not appreciated not just by parents but also by parents in certain schools.
The inability of students to keep up with their Homework, which was mostly doing the assigned work at home, was a significant reason for being kicked out of school at an earlier age.
School attendance was not legally mandatory as a result, and if a student did not have the time to spend afternoons and nights working on Homework, they could be forced to quit school.
Parents’ complaints were frequent throughout the levels of society. In 1880, Francis Amasa Walker convinced the school board in Boston to ban teachers from assigning math assignments under normal circumstances.
In 1900, the journalist Edward Bok railed against schools that gave Homework to students up to 15.
Bok urged parents to write letters to their children’s teachers to request the completion of all homework assignments, and hundreds of parents did so.
Others examined the new laws on child labor enacted in the United States and noted that homework time and school time exceeded the time limit for which children were allowed to work in exchange for a salary.
The campaign resulted in US Congress hearing testimony from experts who believe that children shouldn’t have Homework and that teens should be restricted to only two hours of work each day. In 1901, The California legislators approved an act that ended Homework for all children under 15 years old.
Although Homework was not popular in the first half of the century, a few individuals favored reforms to Homework in various ways, including making Homework more relevant to the children in their non-school lives and not enforcing it Homework altogether.
Homework was a popular topic, and children were urged to keep pace with their Russian peers. From then on, the social norms have fluctuated over 15 years. The idea of Homework was promoted in the 1950s and 1960s. However, it was disapproved of in the late 1960s and into the year 1980.
It was promoted following the book released in The Nation in Peril through the late 1990s, after which it was deemed necessary after the Cold War ended. The Cold War ended in the mid-1990s.
At the moment, American schools are overwhelmingly favorable to granting homework assignments to students from any grade. The popularity of Homework decreased at the time of the Cold War.
Homework in the United Kingdom
British students must complete more Homework than most other nations in Europe. The average weekly time for Homework is five hours. The primary difference between the UK and Asian homework UK homework lies in the social divide between middle-class teenagers and middle-class students who receive more Homework than in Asia or Europe.
FAQ on Who invented Homework
What kind of homework assignment is best for my kid?
Though most Homework is fit and best for student evaluation skills, a single-skill task is the most ideal and practical when learners need to master the concept taught in class.
For instance, students may list some steps in a scientific experiment; this helps them to remember. Cumulative tasks require learners to choose or decide which skill to apply when solving different problems and then correctly use it.
Why do we need Homework?
Homework is a vital tool to help teachers and parents track the student’s progress on mastery of the concept taught in class.
How can I do my Homework effectively?
To complete your Homework on time and respond to all questions accordingly, it is always recommended you plan your lesson with skills and topics so that you can deal with each case independently, create your research outline and respond to all questions according to your view while basing what other researchers are saying.
How can I ensure I benefit from my Homework?
Ensure that you conduct detailed research and respond to all questions accordingly; when researching or reading, remove your mind from answering the question to solving the whole topic. By doing that, you will benefit from your daily assignments.
Is Homework testing my understanding at school?
Most homework tasks are designed to assess your understanding of the taught concept in class so when dealing with them, be sure to understand and apply the concepts used in class by your teacher.
Role of Homework in Improving the Quality of Education
One approach to simplify your learning is to enhance the content and the organization of homework assignments on the topic. The range of homework options is vast. Each is designed to increase student’s knowledge level, improve their study process, and organize knowledge.
Psychologists have observed that the integration of knowledge and activities is essential. The initial perception and consolidation of knowledge in the course and any efficient structure of the study process should be supported by the subsequent process of thinking and applying new information. If the primary understanding and the consolidation of knowledge can be frontal, then the next work must be individual and distinct.
It’s not a way of regulating the student. It’s a chance to spend time on the subject you are studying. Doing this allows you to organize your lessons learned in class and develop your expertise in a specific area.
If you don’t complete the homework assignments, students lose out on time spent studying. Such an assignment aims to reinforce knowledge and practice the skills learned during the class.